VOT (Vapour – Off – Take)
VOT Cylinders are the normal conventional type of cylinders-14.2kg –19kg– where- we all find in our homes, restaurants and other small commercial establishments These type of cylinders were introduced in India after independence with a view to provide LPG for cooking in homes.

In these types of cylinders, the Lpg vapour inside the cylinder is discharged out through a VOT cylinder valve and used for conventional applications.

The rate  of LPG vaporisation from liquid state to vapour  is around 0.4 to 0.7 kg/hr. for usage in- 30 degree ambient Temperature .These type of cylinders are connected in series for higher off-take -if required in-multi story flats- household kitchens, commercial kitchens, restaurants, canteens, small industries, etc in multiple quantities where there is a higher consumption  of LPG.

Limitations of VOT Installations:

  1. Inadequate cylinder banks result in pressure drops in the VOT system throughout the year in peak hours especially in winter seasons.  There are occurrences of- VOT- cylinders getting frozen— with ice formation on the walls of the cylinders — due to high volume LPG consuming – burners and  other LPG equipment’s fired in the System.
  2. To increase the evaporation rate of LPG some of the customers used to pour Hot-water over the cylinders, which is a wrong & dangerous practice. Unnecessarily money and energy are however the customer is unable to recover the residual LPG loss (300 to 500 grn per cylinder) in this type of VOT Systems
  3. To maintain the pressure in the system. Dedicated personnel are deployed for this purpose only also serves a little to save Fuel Energy & Money.
LOT (Liquid – Off – Take)

LOT Cylinders were introduced in India in view to replace VOT Multi Cylinder Bank, with space constraint in metro & Cities. LOT cylinders save space for high LPG consuming clients like -Star Hotels, Small, Medium and Large Scale Industries where installation of a bulk LPG tank is not possible.

In LOT-LPG- system -liquid LPG –is drawn through a liquid off-take valve from 35 kg-47.5 kg cylinders- and transferred to a specially designed LPG Vaporiser to avail LP gas in the vapour State for the LPG applications.

The average rate of discharge per LOT cylinder is 4 kg/hr.at normal pressure & temperature

Thus, the quantum of cylinders required is reduced and less number of cylinders can be connected in series to meet– client –system LPG requirements

Advantages & Benefits of LOT Installations: 47.5 kg & 425kg–450 kg- Mini Bulk Cylinders

Advantages & Benefits of LOT Installations:

  1. A LOT cylinder bank substantially reduces:
  • Space required for storage of cylinders.
  • Cylinder handling in Gas Bank area.
  • The residual gas loss in each of the VOT cylinders,
  1. Absolutely safe and recommended where LPG consumption is relatively high in places like high LPG consuming hotels and industries where a bulk tank is not an option.
  2. The consumption of LPG, per hour and per day, can be easily attained with lesser number of cylinders…. Using lesser number of cylinders results in reduction in size of cylinder manifolds and reduced cylinder handling.
  3. “No” residual gas in the cylinder ensures- zero loss -of LPG –increases energy & Money savings for consumers.
  4. L O  T 425kg–450 kg- Mini Bulk Cylinders      High End customers using 1 tonne Lpg & more  per day need not have to invest huge Amount/ / Huge area for LPG Bulk storage installations -license- / in particular to keep –tough- enough-explosive norms
  5. 40kg per hour-to 400kg per hour LPG consumption can be easily attained with this mini Bulk Systems
  6. User friendly LPG fittings reduces energy loss- time loss-space constraints- & Explosive licence Norms
Reticulated Gas System

The reticulated system is a method of distribution of Domestic LPG in housing colonies and apartments through a pipeline network from centralized cylinder storage to customer’s kitchen.

This concept of LPG Reticulated System is the best alternative to the conventional LPG cylinder distribution system which reduces the overall demand for LPG cylinders in the domestic and commercial sectors; ie saves 50 % of cylinders for oil companies as well as meets the colonial customer requirements very easily even at the 23 rd floor of high residential towers reticulated LPG supply system stands to have numerous advantages.

lpg_flow
Gas flow meters

Gases are compressible and changes volume when placed under pressure, when heated or are cooled.  Most of the Gas meters are used to measure LPG in vapour state, and also Natural Gas.  Nowadays the LPG industry is equipped with Liquid –Lpg –Measuring –High end devices to meet customer demand. They measure volume of gas (Vm) in m3/hr.    Low and medium pressure diaphragm gas meters may be used up to 1.5bar depending on the model.

Various types of flow meters include diaphragm GM, Diaphragm type pre-paid meter ,AMR gas meters, Rotary displacement type FMs, Turbine type FMs, Ultrasonic FMs. ( Raychem ). It is important to select proper regulating system prior to FMs which require real experience in designing such system.

Gas Trains & Monitors

In order to ensure a sufficient degree of safety & reliability of gas supply, gas pressure reducing stations (PRS) are used.

A gas train consists of Filter, Slam-shut off valve, pressure regulator, and safety relief valve & flame arrestor. Filter helps to remove the dust / dirt particles in the gas which may damage the regulator parts. The slam shut off valve normally remains open. In case the outlet pressure of the regulator exceeds the permissible limits, the slam shut off valve senses it through the impulse line & instantly shuts off the supply to the downstream system. The safety relief valve is provided for additional safety. It is to be set at higher pressure than the slam shut off valve pressure so that the safety relief valve will operate only when slam shut off valve fails to operate. The outlet of the safety relief valve is vented well above the roof.

Designing gas trains and selection of every component used in the system at most care need to be taken to ensure total safety and required pressure for end equipment

Though gas piping systems are relatively safe and user friendly however the user needs to be aware of certain guidelines on periodical maintenance for the quality functioning of the system. The condition of the pipelines, meters, regulators and flexible hose are to be checked periodically for corrosion, leakages, worn outs etc and the leak detection systems if installed has to be in good working condition for improved safety.

From prolonged use, dust particles and other impurities present in the gas gets accumulated in the regulators, pipes and safety devices provided in the system which prevents the equipment’s from functioning to the optimum level.

Removal of dust, rust etc. will improve the efficiency and life of the system. Different methods are adopted for testing, ranging from visual examination to using various Instruments, pressure testing etc.

Maintenance of the LPG system has been made mandatory by the bureau of Indian standards.

The user shall get the inspection done of the entire system regularly as defined by the bureau of Indian standards. The minimum periodicity being one year Periodical inspection is also necessary to prevent any misuse either unknowingly by the residents or damages caused due to mishandling, negligence etc.


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